Bring out the ideological basis of the Moderate-Extremist divide in the Indian National Congress. (200 words)

Ideological Differences

S.No. Moderates

Pray, Please & Protest


Pen, Press and Platform

1. Drawn from the Zamindar and upper middle classes in towns. Drawn from the educated middle and lower middle class in towns.
2. They believed that British rule with some reform could be beneficial. Swaraj was the ultimate goal.
3. Insisted on the use of constitutional methods only. They believed that constitutional methods would lead them nowhere.
4. They believed in Conciliation They believed in confrontation
5. They followed the path of least resistance They followed the path of active resistance.
6. They were partriots and did not play the role of a comprador class They were patriots who made sacrifices for the country.
7. Believed in limiting the movement to middle class intelligentsia. Faith in involving the masses for effective political action.
8. Drew their ideological inspiration from Western liberal thought and European history. Drew inspirations from India’s cultural heritages, Indian history and Hinduism.
9. Professed loyalty to the British Crown Believed that British Crown was unworthy of claiming Indian loyalty.

These ideological conflicts led to Surat split in 1907. The Extremists main objective was to attain Swaraj or complete independence and not just self-government. 

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