The crisis of the colonial order during 1919 and 1939 was directly linked to the constitutional reforms, disillusionment and militant anti-colonial struggles. Elucidate. (250 Words)

Factors Crisis
Constitutional reforms ·   After the World War – I, the people were feeling that they would also get democratic reforms. However they were disappointed with the Act of 1919.

·    No Indian member was included in Simon commission – 1927. This sent a wave of anger. Lala Lajpat Rai was severely injured by the police in lathi charge and died. Bhagat Singh killed Saunders, responsible for Lathi charging Lal.

·    1929 – Irwin offer favoured the Dominion Status for India. Gandhi welcomed it. However Lord Irwin was non-committal when Gandhi met him to seek clarification.

·    No significant group in India accepted the Federal portion of The Government of India Act, 1935.

·    The Congress victory in the 1937 election and the consequent formation of popular ministries changed the balance of power within the country vis-a-vis the colonial authorities.

Disillusionment ·    The Rowlatt Act implied arrest of a person without warrant. Gandhiji’s Rowlatt Satyagraha was created a countrywide agitation.

·    An inhumane action of General Dyer during the peaceful protest against the arrest of Saifuddin Kitchlew, and Satyapal created an atmosphere of violence.

·    Having realized the gravity of Dandi March 1931, the Government made Repressive laws to declare the congress unlawful and to gag the press. 

Militant anti-colonial struggles ®The Kakori train robbery near Lucknow, in 1925 was conceived by Ram Prasad Bismil and Ashfaqullah Khan who belonged to the Hindustan Republican Association.

®Bhagat Singh and B K Dutt threw bombs in the Central Legislative Assembly on 8 April 1929 to protest against the passage of the Public Safety Bill and the Trade Disputes Bill.  The objective was not to kill but to make the deal hear. (Lahore conspiracy case).

®Chittagong armory raid 1930 was led by Surya Sen.

®Red Shirts led by Khan Abdul Gaffarkhan joined the Civil Disobedience Movement and were ruthlessly suppressed.

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