1976 – 42nd Amendment (Mini Constitution)
It gave effect to the recommendations of Swaran Singh Committee. It is known as “Mini Constitution”. It incorporated the following changes in the Indian Constitution.
- Preamble: New words Socialist, Secular and Integrity were added.
- Fundamental Duties: Added Fundamental Duties (New Part IV A)
- Admin Tribunals: Added New Part XIVA which provides for admin tribunals.
- Increase in tenure: of Lok Sabha and State Legislative assembly from 5 to 6 years.
- Fundamental Rights: Laws made for the implementation of Directive Principles cannot to be declared invalid on the grounds of violation of some FRs.
- Directive Principles: Three new Directives were added Viz. Equal justice and free legal aid, Participation of workers in management of industries and Protection of environment.
- President’s rule: Extended the one-time duration of the President’s rule in a state from 6 months to one year.