India’s population as on March 2001 stood at 1,028 million, which account for 16.7 per cent of the world’s population. In two decades it now stands at 1366 million accounting about 17.7% of world’s population . Rapid growth in population will create many obstacles to economic progress. Also, it affects the quality of human resource adversely.
|Ø Heavy pressure on land.
Ø Food shortage
Ø Housing problems
Ø Rate of economic development has been affected
Ø Law and order problems
Ø Emergence of slums and overburden of resources
Ø Lower standard of living
Ø Pollution problem
Ø Shrinking of national resources.
Poverty and Unemployment – India is an agricultural nation. As industrial and service sectors do not develop in proportion to the growth of population, most people depend on agriculture. Due to the increase in the cost of production, agriculture is becoming unprofitable. Besides, there is no increase in the employment opportunities in other sectors and this creates more unemployment problems.
Environmental problems – When population increases, there is an increased and unscientific exploitation of resources. This type of exploitation of resources creates obstacles in sustainable development. Shortage of shelter paves the way for the growth of slums and insanitation. Pollution of environment causes different types of communicable diseases. This has placed a heavy financial commitment on the primary healthcare scenario for the government and the people. Despite considerable achievements, the health situation is a matter of major concern for India.
Hence in view of the above it becomes clear that Control over growth of population in India is an essential condition for the country’s rapid economic development.